Seven isolates of Actinomyces turicensis from pa-Annals of. A. radingae was found … The majority belonged to the A. turicensis species. Creatures » Cellular Organisms » Bacteria » Terrabacteria » Actinobacteria » Actinobacteria » Actinomycetales » Actinomycineae » Actinomycetaceae » Actinomyces « Actinomyces turicensis … Fiche Technique Santé-Sécurité : Agents Pathogènes – Actinomyces spp. Common risk factors predisposing patients to this life-threatening infection are recent dental procedures, immunosuppression from malignancy, or history of smoking and alcohol use. Clinicians should consider the possibility that this organism represents a true pathogen and not colonization/contamination. Here, we describe a case of an otherwise healthy female patient presenting with renal calculi and life-threatening A. turicensis bacteremia. Wüst J, Stubbs S, Weiss N, Funke G, Collins MD. Because Actinomyces species are commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal tract, sacral decubitus … Actinomycosis could occur in both humans and other animals (a common example are cattle). Four clinical forms of actinomycosis, i.e. NIH COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Photo Quiz: Thigh Abscess in a Morbidly Obese Diabetic Patient. nov., from the jaw of a cow.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003; 53:603-606. Infection can also be caused by other Actinomyces species, as well as Propionibacterium propionicus, which presents similar symptoms.The condition is likely to be polymicrobial aerobic anaerobic infection. Actinomyces turicensis (A. turicensis) are normal commensals of the oral, gut, vagina, and skin flora. traitement antibiotique sans retrait du DIU. Its symptomatology imitates some malignant pelvic tumours, tuberculosis, or nocardiosis, causing abscesses and fistulas. USA.gov. NLM 2017 Dec;29(6):372-375. doi: 10.1080/1120009X.2017.1306154. Here, we describe a case of an otherwise healthy female patient presenting with renal calculi and life-threatening A. turicensis bacteremia. The Actinomyces species are commensals and normal inhabitants of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. Gómez-Garcés JL, Burillo A, Gil Y, Sáez-Nieto JA. This bacteria is catalase negative, does not reduce nitrate and does not hydrolyze esculin, urea or gelatin. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin. Flera av dessa har inte isolerats från människa. Genus Actinomyces tillhör gruppen anaeroba/fakultativt anaeroba icke sporbildande grampositiva stavar och omfattar ett tjugotal species. Actinomyces turicensis. Actinomyces neuii is considered to be a rare Actinomyces sp., but accounted for 8% of isolates. Author information: (1)Semmelweis University, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Budapest, Hungary. The Actinomyces species are commensals and normal … Findings are a local abscess with multiple draining sinuses, a tuberculosis-like pneumonitis, and low-grade systemic symptoms. Fiche Technique Santé-Sécurité : Agents Pathogènes – Actinomyces spp. Would you like email updates of new search results? Actinomycosis is a chronic disease characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis and draining sinuses. J Clin Microbiol. The patient developed systemic signs of infections and right medial thigh pain subsequently diagnosed as a necrotizing soft-tissue infection. L’Actinomycose est une forme rare de l’infection bactérienne. The patient did not have any risk factors for A. turicensis bacteremia. Actinomycosis is a chronic localized or hematogenous anaerobic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii and other species of Actinomyces. A feared complication of Ludwig’s angina and cervicofacial actinomyces is airway compromise. It can be very serious but can usually be cured with antibiotics. Kocsis B(1), Tiszlavicz Z(2), Jakab G(2), Brassay R(3), Orbán M(3), Sárkány Á(3), Szabó D(4). Author information: (1)Semmelweis University, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Budapest, Hungary.  |  Using well-defined probes coding for sequences specific for recently described Actinomyces species ( A. turicensis , A. radingae , and A. europaeus ), we were able to identify 128 strains. Septic shock due to NSTI caused by Actinomyces Turicensis: the role of clinical pharmacology. The traditional treatment is high-dose penicillin for … Epub 2017 Apr 11. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis: a rare soft tissue infection. of Actinomyces species are being increasingly associated with in-fectionsatmanybodysites(11,13,14).Actinomycesmeyeri,Acti-nomyces neuii, and Actinomyces turicensis are emerging as impor-tant causes of such infections. A PubMed search revealed only 9 previously reported cases of bacteremia due to A. turicensis, mostly in female patients. Epub 2010 Feb 24. The patient was treated with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam, which not only decreased the swelling but improved the necrotic appearance of his abscess wound. The bacterial infection that causes red hard lumps on the Neck, Mouth, Chest, Abdomen and the Pelvic is Actinomycosis. Infection with these organisms is usually benign, and bacteremia is rare. La plupart des patients atteints d'actinomycose répondent à l'antibiothérapie, mais la réponse soit habituellement lente du fait de l'étendue de l'induration tissulaire et de la nature relativement avasculaire des lésions. 2012 Oct;65(4):357-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.02.016.  |  All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin. Actinomyces species may form endospores, and, while individual bacteria are rod-shaped, Actinomyces colonies form fungus … Actinomyces turicensis (A. turicensis) are normal commensals of the oral, gut, vagina, and skin flora. A. turicensis is a non-pigment producing, aerotolerant member of Actinomyces genus. Actinomycosis is a rare type of bacterial infection. Saprophytes de la cavité buccale, de l’oropharynx, … Find out about actinomycosis, which is a rare type of bacterial infection. Although the prognosis of actinomycosis is good, the diagnosis of actinomycosis is quite difficult. Conclusion: Actinomyces turicensis may be the pathogen causing certain necrotizing soft-tissue infections. Findings are a local abscess with multiple draining sinuses, a tuberculosis-like pneumonitis, and low-grade systemic symptoms. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Parent taxon: Actinomyces Harz 1877 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Wust J, Stubbs S, Weiss N, Funke G, Collins MD. nov. and Actinomyces turicensis … A newly recognized entity is associated with osteonecrosis of the mandible. the following information is not yet verified Taxonomy Family: Actinomycetaceae, Natural habitats Is part of the indigenous microflora of human mucous membranes, may be isolated from human clinical sources without evidence of its pathogenicity. SUSPECT: characteristic lesion (hard, chronic inflammatory mass [+/- sinus tracts] passing through tissue planes) and micro (Gram stain ID culture often negative). This type of abscess is usually unsuspected and, thus, diagnosed and treated surgically; however, long-duration treatment with penicillin can be completely effective. Actinomyces meyeri infection: case report and review of the literature. In extreme cases, pelvic abscesses might develop. Actinomyces israelii has long been recognized as a causative agent of actinomycosis. Actinomycosis is a chronic disease characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis and draining sinuses. With the introduction of advanced molecular methods, knowledge about … Over a 7-year period, we isolated 294 Actinomyces -like organisms (ALOs) which were not clearly identifiable. The indications for surgery for patients with actinomycosis must be individualized on the basis of the nature and extent of disease, the presence of complications, and the patient's clinical re… www.coloproctol.or g 245. Using well-defined probes coding for sequences specific for recently described Actinomyces species (A. turicensis,A. De är icke syrafasta och bildar ej endosporer eller konidier (Actinomyces betyder strålsvamp p.g.a. Actinomyces turicensis Wüst, Stubbs, N. Weiss, Funke & Collins, 1995 References [ edit ] Assignment of Actinomyces pyogenes -like (CDC coryneform group E) bacteria to the genus Actinomyces as Actinomyces radingae sp. Case Report: A 45-year-old obese previously healthy male presented to the emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis. Pénicilline à forte dose. Actinomycosis is a disease of the Neck, Tongue, Mouth, Chest, Abdomen and the Pelvic. Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces , Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. L’actinomycose, en particulier pelvienne, infection rare mais sérieuse, reste la préoccupation essentielle du gynécologue chez une femme porteuse de DIU ayant des frottis positifs pour actinomyces. nov. and Actinomyces turicensis sp. Actinomycosis. What is actinomyces infection. Disease is "actinomycosis" caused by one of six Actinomyces agents, most commonly A. israelii. Fazili T, Blair D, Riddell S, Kiska D, Nagra S. J Infect. Actinomyces turicensis was first reported in 1995 [3]andhas been emerging as an important cause of infections [ 4]. A turicensis, and A radingae.3 4 Orocervicofacial actinomycosis is the most common form of the disease and comprises about 50% of all reported cases.5 It usually follows dental manipulation or trauma to the mouth, although it can arise spontaneously in patients with poor dental hygiene.w4 Common presenting features Actinomyces turicensis Wüst, Stubbs, N. Weiss, Funke & Collins, 1995 References [ edit ] Assignment of Actinomyces pyogenes -like (CDC coryneform group E) bacteria to the genus Actinomyces as Actinomyces radingae sp. It is caused by non-spore-forming species of the genus Actinomyces. actinomyces israelii is a commensal of the female genital tract. A PubMed search revealed only 9 previously reported cases of bacteremia due to A. turicensis, mostly in female patients. Actinomyces, commonly found in the normal flora of the oral cavity, is one of the pathogens that can cause Ludwig’s angina. 2008 Apr-Jun;26(2):184-6. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.40540. RESULTS: The Actinomyces species identified for this study comprised: Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Actinomyces turicensis, Actinomyces funkei, Actinomyces graevenitzii and Actinomyces europaeus. radingae, and A. europaeus), we were able to identify 128 strains. including brain abscess, actinomycoma, subdural empyema and epidural abscess are well described, however reports of Actinomyces-associated meningitis are scarcely reported. J Clin Microbiol. Early effective antimicrobial therapy may obviate the need for surgery or facilitate a more conservative surgical approach. The pa-tient was successfully treated with transvaginal drainage and … Their detection and identification in clinical microbiology laboratories and recognition as pathogens in clinical settings can be challenging. Although actinomycosis is relatively rare, at least in Western populations (8), recently reported observations implicating A. nov. and Actinomyces turicensis sp. Actinomyces definition is - any of a genus (Actinomyces) of filamentous or rod-shaped bacteria that includes usually commensal and sometimes pathogenic forms inhabiting mucosal surfaces especially of the oral cavity of warm-blooded vertebrates. Over a 7-year period, we isolated 294 Actinomyces -like organisms (ALOs) which were not clearly identifiable. nov. Lett Appl Microbiol 1995;20:76-81. , 1995, 20, 76-81. Actinomycosis is a chronic localized or hematogenous anaerobic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii and other species of Actinomyces. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Actinomycosis is a long-term infection that causes sores, or abscesses, in the body’s soft tissues. Using well-defined probes coding for sequences specific for recently described Actinomyces species ( A. turicensis , A. radingae , and A. europaeus ), we were able to identify 128 strains. Assignment of Actinomyces pyogenes-like (CDC coryneform group E) bacteria to the genus Actinomyces as Actinomyces radingae sp. Actinomyces is an anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus that is known to cause chronic granulomatous infections. Over time, it … Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The Actinomyces species are Gram positive and commonly filamentous organisms that are facultative anaerobes. Actinomycosis is treated with antibiotics. Ludwig's angina is diffuse cellulitis and edema of the soft tissues of the neck and floor of the mouth. Treatment for actinomycosis. Case report of Actinomyces turicensis meningitis as a complication of purulent mastoiditis. Seven Isolates of Actinomyces turicensis from Patients with Surgical Infections of the Anogenital Area in a Czech Hospital Eva Chudáčková , Lenka Geigerová , Jaroslav Hrabák , Tamara Bergerová , Václav Liška , Josef Scharfen Microbiol. 2010 Apr;48(4):1508-9. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02139-09. Appl. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. HHS Soft tissue infections caused by Actinomyces neuii, a rare pathogen. A. turicensis is most often related … The oligonucleotides used were the Actinomyces turicensis-specific (upper row) and the Actinomyces radingae-specific (lower row) probes derived from the 165 rRNA sequences. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Their detection and identification in clinical microbiology laboratories and recognition as pathogens in clinical settings can be challenging. Infection with these organisms is usually benign, and bacteremia is rare. Actinomyces turicensis is an emerging new isolate that can cause human infections [ 5 ]. Volume 31, Number 6, 20 15. Kocsis B(1), Tiszlavicz Z(2), Jakab G(2), Brassay R(3), Orbán M(3), Sárkány Á(3), Szabó D(4). Coloproctolo gy. This bacteria is catalase negative, does not reduce nitrate and does not hydrolyze esculin, urea or gelatin. ABSTRACT Over a 7-year period, we isolated 294 Actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs) which were not clearly identifiable. Actinomycosis is a rare chronic disease caused by Actinomyces spp., anaerobic filamentous Gram-positive bacteria that normally colonize the human mouth and digestive and genital tracts 1).Typical actinomycosis in humans is a chronic disease caused by Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and Propionibacterium propionicus (previously … Characterization of Actinomyces turicensis and Actinomyces radingae strains from human clinical samples May 1998 International journal of systematic bacteriology 48 Pt 2(2):503-10 identified, followed by Actinomyces turicensis with 23%. Actinomyces species are pathogenic locally in the oral cavity or through direct extension into fascial planes as abscesses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates showed that the Actinomyces spp. During the past 3 decades, a large number of novel Actinomyces species have been described. IUDs and colonization or infection with Actinomyces Pelvic actinomycosis is an extremely rare disease that can occur in women with a long duration of intrauterine device (IUD) use. Actinomycosis is an infectious bacterial disease, frequently observed on the neck and face, that leads to the formation of abscesses and sinus tracts.… Actinomycosis (Actinomyces Infection): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. A. turicensis is most often related to genital, skin, and urinary tract infections. Clinicians should consider the possibility that this organism represents a true pathogen and not colonization/contamination. Actinomyces israelii has long been recognized as a causative agent of actinomycosis. Its biochemical characteristics include negative reactions for the production of catalase, urease, All but one strain of A. turicensis was susceptible to linezolid. nov. Lett Appl Microbiol 1995; 20:76-81. A species of anaerobic, Gram variable, rod shaped bacteria assigned to the phylum Actinobacteria. Actinomyces answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. There are few reported cases of this species causing abdominal and genital infections; however, there is no report of it invading the cervicofacial space. These bacteria survive under anaerobic conditions or conditions with minimal oxygen supply and do not normally cause extensive tissue colonization . Seven Isolates of Actinomyces turicensis from Patients with Surgical Infections of the Anogenital Area in a Czech Hospital Eva Chudáčková , Lenka Geigerová , Jaroslav Hrabák , … We present a patient with left-sided neck swelling after a recent oral surgical procedure and was found to grow Actinomyces turicensis on wound culture. General information. General information. Cervicofacial actinomyces is an invasive infection that can form life-threatening abscesses through its rapid spread. We present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia secondary to a polymicrobial sacral decubitus ulcer infection in an elderly male patient. www.coloproctol.or g 245. kocsis.bela@med.semmelweis-univ.hu. Case report of Actinomyces turicensis meningitis as a complication of purulent mastoiditis. Diagnosis is by the typical appearance plus laboratory identification. Diagnosis is by the typical appearance plus laboratory identification. diabetes mellitus; necrotizing soft tissue infection. 2015 Nov;53(11):3391, 3709-10. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02376-13. the following information is not yet verified Taxonomy Family: Actinomycetaceae, Natural habitats Is part of the indigenous microflora of human mucous membranes, may be isolated from human clinical sources without evidence of its … It is caused by non-spore-forming species of the genus Actinomyces.The Actinomyces species are Gram positive and commonly filamentous organisms that are facultative anaerobes. Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Actinomyces spp. We present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia secondary to a polymicrobial sacral decubitus ulcer infection in an elderly male patient. Actinomycosis is a rare infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species. Traitement. nov. Lett Appl Microbiol 1995; 20:76-81. Background: Necrotizing soft-tissue infections are a devastating infection that is rarely caused by Actinomyces spp. With the introduction of advanced molecular methods, … The majority belonged to the A. turicensis species. 101. Ann Coloproctol 2015;3 1(6):243-245. Actinomyces is a genus of the Actinobacteria class of bacteria.They all are gram-positive. During the past 3 decades, a large number of novel Actinomyces species have been described. kocsis.bela@med.semmelweis-univ.hu. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Actinomyces turicensis: An unusual cause of cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as ludwig angina in an immunocompromised host - Case report and literature review, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00636. Results: The Actinomyces species identified for this study comprised: Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Actinomyces turicensis, Actinomyces funkei, Actinomyces graevenitzii and Actinomyces europaeus. Parent taxon: Actinomyces Harz 1877 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Hall V, Collins MD, Hutson R, Inganas E, Falsen E, Duerden BI.Actinomyces vaccimaxillae sp. nov., from the jaw of a cow.Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003; 53:603-606. The majority belonged to the A. turicensis species. nomyces neuii, and Actinomyces turicensis are emerging as impor-tant causes of such infections. 2775 CASE REPORT Actinomyces turicensis Bacteremia Secondary to Pyometra Hideharu Hagiya 1, Hiroko Ogawa , Yusuke Takahashi1, Kosuke Kimura1, Kan Hasegawa 2 and Fumio Otsuka1 Abstract We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia that was caused by pyometra. L’infection répond bien au traitement, mais il est généralement nécessaire de prendre un cours d’antibiotiques durant plusieurs mois afin d’assurer toutes les bactéries sont anéantis. Case report and review of the literature. Keywords: nov. and Actinomyces turicensis sp. Parent taxon: Actinomyces Harz 1877 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Hall V, Collins MD, Hutson R, Inganas E, Falsen E, Duerden BI.Actinomyces vaccimaxillae sp. Ann Coloproctol 2015;3 1(6):243-245. Actinomycosis is a granulomatous infection of the cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic regions. Introduction. nov. and Actinomyces turicensis sp. Among these species Actinomyces turicensis was first reported in 1995 and has been emerging as an important cause of infections . Seven isolates of Actinomyces turicensis from pa-Annals of. likheten med svampinfek… Yew WW, Wong PC, Wong CF, Chau CH. Results: Actinomyces meyeri was predominantly isolated and accounted for 34% of all Actinomyces spp. 2775 CASE REPORT Actinomyces turicensis Bacteremia Secondary to Pyometra Hideharu Hagiya 1, Hiroko Ogawa , Yusuke Takahashi1, Kosuke Kimura1, Kan Hasegawa 2 and Fumio Otsuka1 Abstract We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia that was caused by pyometra. Appropriate therapy includes maintenance of the airway, intravenous antibiotics, and surgical intervention if indicated [ 4 ]. Therefore, prompt initiation of intravenous antibiotics is required for the treatment and prevention of deadly complications. Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare but proven complication of use of intrauterine devices. Conclusion: Actinomyces turicensis may be the pathogen causing certain necrotizing soft-tissue infections. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. About 70% of infections are due to either Actinomyces israelii or A. gerencseriae. The Actinomyces genus encompasses many bacterial species; the ones most frequently responsible for infection, however, are A. israeli, A. gerencseriae and A. turicensis [4]. Treatment starts off in hospital with antibiotics given directly into a vein (intravenously). Gatti M, Gasparini LE, Grimaldi CM, Abbati D, Clemente S, Brioschi PR, Fumagalli R, Scaglione F. J Chemother. The pa-tient was successfully treated with transvaginal drainage and antibiotic therapy. Actinomycosis is a rare, infectious disease in which bacteria spread from one part of the body to another through body tissues. Actinomyces species are pathogenic locally in the oral cavity or through direct extension into fascial planes as abscesses. Indian J Med Microbiol. Volume 31, Number 6, 20 15. Although actinomycosis is relatively rare, at least in Western populations (8), recently reported observations implicating A. meyeri in brain abscesses (15) and Actinobaculum schaalii (cur- The patient did not have any risk factors for A. turicensis bacteremia. A species of anaerobic, Gram variable, rod shaped bacteria assigned to the phylum Actinobacteria. Dans certains cas, la chirurgie mineure peut être tenu de réparer le tissu endommagé et pour drainer le pus sur les abcès. Assignment of Actinomyces pyogenes-like (CDC coryneform group E) bacteria to the genus Actinomyces as Actinomyces radingae sp. Epub 2012 Mar 6. La plupart des infections bactériennes sont confinées dans une partie du corps, parce que les bactéries sont incapables de pénétrer dans les tissus du corps. nov. Lett. Assignment of Actinomyces pyogenes-like (CDC coryneform group E) bacteria to the genus Actinomyces as Actinomyces radingae sp. Actinomyces are nonmotile, filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria that cause actinomycosis in immunodeficiency patients. Actinomycoses are opportunistic infections and require normal mucous barriers to be altered. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Recent studies on actinomycosis have shown that Actinomyces play an important role in various biological and clinical processes, such as the formation of …  |  Actinomyces turicensis is an isolate that has emerged recently to cause infections in humans. Treatment of pelvic actinomycosis associated with intrauterine devices involves removal of the device and antibiotic treatment. Parent taxon: Actinomyces Harz 1877 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Wust J, Stubbs S, Weiss N, Funke G, Collins MD. Lanes 1 … Of the myriad species of Actinomyces identified, the most common pathogens include A. israelii, A. viscosus, A. naeslundii, A. turicensis, and A. radingae. Actinomycosis is usually found in the: Actinomyces species are facultatively anaerobic (except A. meyeri and A. israelii both obligate anaerobe), and they grow best under anaerobic conditions. Introduction . Successful treatment included prompt surgical intervention and initiation of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. Traitement prolongé, débuté par voie IV avec pénicilline G: 10 à 20 millions d’unités internationales IV continue 4 à 6 semaines ou Amoxicilline 6 à 12 g IV lente pendant 2 à 6 semaines puis amoxicilline PO 3 à 4 g/24H en 3 administrations pendant plusieurs mois (3 à … Successful treatment included prompt surgical intervention and initiation of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. A. turicensis is a non-pigment producing, aerotolerant member of Actinomyces genus. Actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs) have been identified in women with and without IUC - although it is acknowledged that the level is thought to be low and that actinomycosis is rare; role of ALOs in infection in women using IUC is unclear; Reference: Coloproctolo gy. 30 espèces d’Actinomyces, Actinomyces israelii responsable de la majorité des actinomycoses humaines Bactéries filamenteuses, à gram positif, ramifiées, anaérobies, immobiles, non acido-résistantes. Actinomyces turicensis. This disease is called lumpy jaw even among cattle and it refers to the animal's large abscesses which grow on its neck and head. Of the myriad species of Actinomyces identified, the most common pathogens include A. israelii, A. viscosus, A. naeslundii, A. turicensis, and A. radingae. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.

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